Amount 56, 2004 – Problem 6
Mediated marriage: internet matchmaking in provincial Russia
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I lived in Yoshkar?Ola into the educational 12 months 2000/01 for a training fellowship from the Robert?Bosch?Foundation. During summer of 2003 We came back for 2 months having a pre?dissertation research grant through the University of Michigan. This short article is founded on interviews and casual conversations with about 20 women that were utilizing the solutions of internet matchmaking agencies, with all the manager of Yoshkar?Ola’s biggest agency, sufficient reason for a number of its staff. I became also provide during A english course at the agency, also during conferences between a few worldwide partners. I will be grateful to any or all my interlocutors, along with to Katherine Verdery as well as 2 anonymous reviewers for perceptive feedback and criticisms.
A college employee advertised in 2000 that there have been 26 such companies, usually doubling as travel agencies, in this town of 250,000 individuals. In 2003 the manager of 1 associated with agencies said that at some point there was indeed around 40 agencies, many of them perhaps perhaps not formally registered but working away from personal flats. While i really could perhaps not confirm this quantity, indications like brachnoe agentstvo or mezhdunarodnye znakomstva had been shown by many people regional travel agencies and picture studios.
For the conversation of sex relations in Soviet and post?Soviet Russia which can be really mindful of changing ideas of masculinity see Ashwin ( 2000 Ashwin Sarah (ed. ) Gender, State and Society in Soviet and Post?Soviet Russia (London, Routledge 2000) Google Scholar ).
Monthly per capita income in Marii El had been 1,052.3 rubles, compared to a federal average of 2,890.1. Just Ingushetia, Chechnya, Ivanovo oblast’ and the Buryat Autonomous District had reduced numbers (Goskomstat Rossii, 2002 Goskomstat Rossii Rossiya v tsifrakh 2002. Kratkii statisticheskii sbornik (Moscow 2002) Google Scholar, pp. 36–37).
Information regarding the real history and structure that is organisational of business originates from a job interview because of the manager, 15 July 2003, and from Virginia’s sites, www. Virginia.ru (in Russian) and www. Yoshkar?ola.com (in English, fond of male clients).
This indicates that ladies in Yoshkar?Ola aren’t alone in to locate husbands abroad, but you will find up to now no figures that are comparative the sheer number of ladies searching for the services of matchmaking agencies in several components of Russia and Eastern Europe.
The fee that is monthly from $43 to $83, according to whether or not the man wants to correspond just with ladies from Yoshkar?Ola or with those who work in other metropolitan areas, and whether their letters will likely to be translated orally or perhaps in composing for the ladies receiving them.
Www. Russianblacklist.com, look over 5 March 2004.
Www. Yoshkar?ola.com/mall/item. Cgi, look over 4 September 2003.
The sheer number of ‘Russian’ marriage agencies marketing on the web (based in towns for the Soviet that is former Union well as with Western nations) is actually big and constantly changing. Listed here three examples may possibly provide a sense of exactly exactly exactly how Virginia compares along with other agencies: Charming Lady in Odessa charges $10 per specific target, heading down to $3.75 each for the package of 20 details (www. Charming?lady.net, look over 5 March 2004); Svetlana’s Brides in Kyrgyzstan costs $5 per trade of e-mails, including translations, $20 for shooting and transmitting a hour?long video of the ‘lady’, and $5 each hour for English classes (www. Svetlanasbrides.com, read 5 March 2004); and an agency in Voronezh offers free initial associates, then charges $8 per person target or $50 for 30 days of limitless communication with one ‘lady’ (www. Withlovefromvoronezh.com, look over 5 March 2004).
See also Kligman ( 1996 Kligman Gail ‘Women and also the Negotiating of Identity in Post?Communist Eastern Europe’ in V. Bonnell (ed. )1996) pp. 68–91Google Scholar, p. 78) regarding the different motivations of females involved in prostitution.
In accordance with its manager, 90% of Virginia’s male customers originate from the world that is english?speaking 65% through the US alone. Less clients originate from holland, Germany, India and Japan. The agency additionally gets needs from Arab males, but not one of them has to date contracted a marriage.
In reality, residents of this Philippines nevertheless received the greatest figures of fiancee visas given because of the INS in 1999, residents associated with Russian Federation coming 2nd with some 2,700 visas (Visson, 2001 Visson Lynn Wedded Strangers. The difficulties of Russian–American Marriages expanded version, (nyc, Hippocrene Books 2001) Google Scholar, pp. 205, 212).
Www. Yoshkar?ola.com/e/services. Shtml? Romantic, browse 4 September 2003.
It really is ironic he makes use of the expression ‘Caucasian’, which in Russia evokes dark?haired, dark?skinned folks from the southern republics, frequently refered to as ‘blacks’. All of the ladies he’s got at heart would object to being so called.
For a conversation regarding the hard relationship of Eastern European and Russian women to Western feminism see Gal & Kligman ( 2000 Gal Susan Kligman Gail The Politics of Gender After Socialism. A essay that is comparative?historical, Princeton University Press 2000) Google Scholar, pp. 98–104).
At the time of 14 November 2002.
These women are still above average: in the late 1990s 13.2% of urban Russian women had higher education, 28.9% post?secondary vocational training (Meshcherkina, 1999 Meshcherkina, Elena, Y while the level of education is generally high in Russia, and slightly higher for women than for men. 1999. ‘Frauen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt in Russland’. Feministische Studien, 17(1): pp. 49–60 Google Scholar, p. 50).
Interview with Virginia’s manager, 15 July 2003.
All names in this specific article have now been changed.
A small cupid free dating site?scale survey conducted by a student among about 100 of her peers indicates that the internet is not the culturally preferred way to meet a spouse while i know of no large studies of the marital preferences of women in Yoshkar?Ola. Merely a small small fraction listed a marriage agency as a sensible way to satisfy, the great majority preferring venues where individuals meet in individual, such as for instance 2001 Morozova Dariya ‘Psikhologiya dobrachnogo obshcheniya’ paper presented during the conference ‘Problema lyubvi v dukhovnom opyte chelovechestva’, Mari State Technical University, Yoshkar?Ola, 2 June 2001 Google Scholar ).
Russian ladies whom Visson interviewed mentioned the willingness of US males to marry ladies with young ones as a thing that set them apart from Russian males. Some People in america she talked to had clearly looked for ‘a girl with a young kid at night diaper age’ (Visson, 2001 Visson Lynn Wedded Strangers. The difficulties of Russian–American Marriages expanded version, (nyc, Hippocrene Books 2001) Google Scholar, p. 208).
A tiny city in Marii El.
The number of foreigners from outside the former Soviet Union who spent more than a month in Yoshkar?Ola in 2000–01 was limited to a Lutheran pastor from Finland, an American Pentecostal minister, an American student studying Russian, two German linguists studying Mari, a group of Chinese exchange students and myself to my knowledge.
Www. Virginia.ru/marriage/private. Shtml? Photo, look over 4 September 2003 (my interpretation).
Www. Yoshkar?ola.com/e/services. Shtml? Romantic, browse 4 September 2003.
The decision regarding the name ‘Virginia’ shows just how much the owners know about the attraction of this international to both edges: the manager explained he had been searching for a feminine name but one which, unlike names such as ‘Natasha’ or ‘Anastasia’, typical to a lot of matchmaking agencies, would seem exotic to Russians aswell (meeting, 15 July 2003).